The present project aims to ask whether the split which has hit the European economic-social system makes it still feasible to rely solely on ex-post welfare interventions.

The project

The research project, the fruit of a collaboration between SEP and INAPP, developed over two years. The activities of the first year were dedicated to the critical recognition of the different types of welfare in the EU countries and to the evaluation of their possible evolution in the face of the challenges posed by technological change. The activities of the second year were directed to an in-depth study of the results obtained in the first year, with reference to a paradigmatic case of European problems in the field of welfare. The working group decided to focus attention on the case of Italy and, given the profound changes in the scenario that have occurred in the last year (Covid-19 crisis and national and European economic policy responses), to also analyze the consequences of the pandemic, the interrelationships with the pressures of technological change and the implications for welfare.
Specifically, the analyses carried out with reference to Italy consist of two parts: the first, entitled “The Italian labor market in the pandemic: an analysis by professional profiles, salary levels and training”, focuses on the study of the impact of the Covid-19 crisis on employment, measured both in terms of the number of individuals employed and of the hours of work they completed. The second part, entitled “The Italian welfare system in the EU perspective: European social agenda, active labor policies and the fight against poverty”, deals with the case of Italy, using comparative analysis with European regimes as a reference. In particular, starting from the work carried out in the first year, we want to highlight the Italian specificities – also in the context of the cluster of Mediterranean countries to which it belongs – and then focus attention on the transformations of the last two decades, marked by the succession of economic and financial crises and by the pandemic shock.


The National Institute for Public Policy Analysis (INAPP) deals with the analysis, monitoring and evaluation of labor policies and services for the job, education and training policies, social policies and all those policies which have effects on the labor market. In these fields, INAPP promotes the understanding of economic and social phenomena through the production of periodic monitoring and evaluation reports, the creation and development of databases, the organization of seminars and conferences and carries out strategic analysis of policies aimed at the development of intervention scenarios for the policymaker.