P. Benigno, P. Canofari, G. Di Bartolomeo, M. Messori: Inflation dynamics and monetary policy in the euro area
The surge in inflation rates experienced by the euro area since the beginning of 2021 is rooted in supply shocks that have led to bottlenecks and an energy crisis. This paper shows that the shifts of inflation expectations into prices could cause some persistence in the excessive inflation process. In this last respect, the flatness of the Phillips curve implies that the unemployment- inflation sacrifice ratio is high; hence, there are substantial costs of bringing inflation down through a contraction in aggregate demand. However, a restrictive monetary policy stance appears unavoidable to keep inflation expectations anchored. A compelling policy mix can overcome this trade-off by supporting a favourable scenario with a soft landing of the economy and an inflation rate returning to target at the medium-long horizon.